The Earth’s crust is unstable, especially at plate margins.

Unique landforms occur at plate margins.

People use these landforms as a resource and adapt to the conditions within them.

Volcanoes are hazards resulting from tectonic activity. Their primary and secondary effects are positive as well as negative. Responses change in the aftermath of an eruption.

Supervolcanoes are on a much bigger scale than other volcanoes and an eruption would have global consequences.

Earthquakes occur at constructive, destructive and conservative plate margins.

The effects of earthquakes and responses to them differ due to contrasts in levels of wealth.

Tsunamis are a specific secondary effect and can have devastating effects in coastal areas. 

Forecasting earthquakes & volcanoes

Hazard mapping. 

The amount of ice on a global and continental level has changed in the past.

The amount of ice depends on the glacial budget. This has seen a loss since 1950 and there are seasonal changes due to fluctuations in temperature.

Ice is a powerful force in shaping the land as a result of weathering, erosion, transportation and deposition.

Distinctive landforms result from different processes.

Landscapes that are actively affected by snow and ice attract tourists. This leads to conflict and issues over the use of such areas.

Glacial retreat can pose a threat to the economies of areas relying on tourism and result in damage to fragile environments.

Spatial changes in cold environments, extent of glaciation over time. 

The coast is shaped by weathering, mass movement, erosion, transportation and deposition.

Distinctive landforms result from different processes.

Rising sea level will have important consequences for people living in the coastal zone.

Coastal erosion can lead to cliff collapse. This causes problems for people and the environment.

There is discussion about how the coast should be managed. There is debate about the costs and benefits of ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ engineering.

Coastal areas provide a unique environment and habitat. There is a need for conservation and this leads to conflict with other land uses.

Landslipping and erosion, movement of sediment. 

The shape of river valleys changes downstream due to the dominance of different processes. processes of erosion - hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition, solution; vertical and lateral erosion. processes of transportation - traction, saltation, suspension and solution. Deposition and reasons for it. Long profile and changing cross profile.

Distinctive landforms result from different processes as rivers flow downstream. landforms resulting from erosion - waterfalls and gorges; landforms resulting from erosion and deposition - meanders and ox-bow lakes; landforms resulting from deposition - leveees and flood plains.

The amount of water in a river fluctuates due to a number of different reasons. Factors affecting discharge - amount and type of rainfall, temperature, previous weather conditions, relief, rock type (impermeable, permeable, porous and pervious) and land use.

Rivers flood due to a number of physical and human causes. Flooding appears to be an increasingly frequentl event. The causes of flooding: physical - prolongued rain, heavy rain, snowmelt, relif and human - deforestation, building construction. The frequency and location of flood events - in the UK in the last 20 years.

The effects of, and responses to, floods vary between areas of contrasting levels of wealth. A case study of flooding in a rich part of the world and one from a poorer area - the different effects of and responses to flooding.

There is discussion about the benefits of hard and soft engineering and debate about which is the better option. hard engineering strategies - dams and reservoirs, straightening. Soft engineering - flood warnings, preparation, flood plain zoning, "do nothing", the costs and benefits of these.

Rivers are managed to provide a water supply. there are a variety of issues arising from this. The Uk - increasing demand for water; areas of surplus and areas of defecit; the need for transfer. A case study of a dam/ reservoir to consider the resulting economic, socail and environmental issues and the need for sustainable supplies.